Aims and Scope

The Open Biomarkers Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes research articles, reviews/mini-reviews, letters and guest edited single topic issues on biomarkers in clinical, medical and pharmaceutical research. The coverage includes biomarkers of disease, new biomarkers, exposure to drugs, genetic effects and applications of biomarkers.

The Open Biomarkers Journal, a peer reviewed journal, is an important and reliable source of current information on the developments in the field. The emphasis will be on publishing quality articles rapidly and freely available to the researchers worldwide.

Recent Articles

Epidermal Growth Factor rs4444903 A>G Gene Polymorphism Association with Chronic Hepatitis B Liver Disease Progression among Egyptian Children: A Multicenter Study

Amal A. Mohamed, Gehan L.A. Hakeem, Gihan M. Babrs, Laila E. Abolfotoh, Nageh M. Shehata, Sheren E. Maher, Suzan M. Mousa, Ahlam M. Ismail, Doaa Ezzat, Ahmed G.K. Habib, Doaa M. Ghaith, Naglaa Fawazy, Rania A. Khattab, Eman El S. Habib, Dalia M. Abd El-Hassib, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Dalia A. El-damasy


Polymorphisms of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines can affect the clinical presentation of the infection. We aimed to assess the role of EGF gene single-nucleotide polymorphism in the outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children.


One hundred HBV-infected children and 75 healthy matched controls were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients included 18 chronic inactive and 82 chronic active carriers. EGF rs4444903 A>G genotypes were determined using allele-specific amplification.


Significant differences regarding EGF genotypic frequency (p=0.001) in patients compared to controls (p=0.001). Eighteen percent were inactive, and 82% were active carriers. AA, AG and GG genotypic frequency were 66.7%, 33.3%, 0% and were 3.7%, 37.8% and 58.5% in the inactive and active carriers, respectively, with significant differences regarding AA, AG, GG genotypic frequency (p=0.001 for all). EGF AA, AG, GG genotypes frequency were 1.9%, 33.3%, and 64.8%, respectively, with significant differences between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients regarding AA, AG, GG genotypic frequency (p=0.001 for all).


Increased G allele frequency in EGF rs4444903 A > G polymorphism in HBV- Egyptian children is associated with worse outcomes.

July 12, 2021

Editor's Choice

The Hidden Danger of Environmental Chemicals during the “Windows of Susceptibility” in a Woman’s Life – How can we use Intermediate Biomarkers to Improve Breast Cancer Prevention?

Katarzyna Rygiel


It has been observed that many toxic environmental agents increase risk, accelerate development, or deteriorate the course of breast cancer (BC). In particular, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are harmful to endocrine receptor actions and signaling in the breast tissue.

Usually, there is a long interval of time between the exposure to EDC and BC incidence, and this often represents a serious obstacle for effective BC prophylaxis. Notably, during certain periods of a woman’s life cycle, the BC risk is particularly elevated due to increased susceptibility to some EDC. These windows of susceptibility (WOS) include prenatal, puberty, pregnancy, and menopausal transition stages of a female’s life course.

Four WOS have been considered as the most vulnerable periods for BC since the mammary gland undergoes the main anatomical and physiological transformations at those intervals. This means that during specific WOS, the EDC from the environment can have the most dangerous impact on BC risk and possible BC development later in a woman’s life. However, most clinical BC studies related to toxic environmental exposures have not been connected to the specific WOS.

Therefore, the goal of this article is to briefly describe some important research results, focused on the links between EDC and BC, within four critical WOS. In addition, this mini-review outlines some useful biomarkers for further research and prophylaxis of BC and also for both the research community and the medical professionals.


To bridge the gap in BC prevention, it is essential to recognize the links between EDC and BC within the critical WOS. Moreover, an integrative model of BC research, applying intermediate biomarkers, is necessary to determine the mechanisms of action of various EDC during critical periods in a woman’s lifespan. Hopefully, this will lead to progress in BC prevention.

June 10, 2021

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