RESEARCH ARTICLE


The Cytoglobin Expression Under Hypoxic Conditions in Covid-19 Cases



Endah Wulandari1, *, Rr Ayu Fitri Hapsari1, Francisca A Tjakradidjaja1, Alfiah1, Auliyani Andam Suri1
1 Faculty of Medicine, Islamic State University Syarif Hidyatullah, Jakarta, Indonesia


Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
0
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1258
Abstract HTML Views: 1118
PDF Downloads: 611
ePub Downloads: 480
Total Views/Downloads: 3467
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 682
Abstract HTML Views: 439
PDF Downloads: 416
ePub Downloads: 343
Total Views/Downloads: 1880



Creative Commons License
© 2023 Wulandari et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Medicine, Islamic State University Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, Indonesia; Tel: 0621-74716718;
Fax: 0621-74716718; E-mail: endah.wulandari@uinjkt.ac.id


Abstract

Introduction:

Cytoglobin (Cygb) is an oxygen transporter marker that appears in hypoxic conditions. The clinical condition of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, in general is that patients experience hypoxemia with low oxygen saturation. The Cygb gene is stimulated by the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) transcription factor, which is stable in hypoxia.

Methods:

This study investigates Cygb expression in hypoxic COVID-19 cases. The design of this research is analytically observational. Parameters measured were Cygb mRNA and protein levels, correlation of HIF-1α and Cygb proteins in COVID-19 patients with Alpha, Beta, Delta, Omicron variants and negative control patients.

Results:

The results showed that each Cygb mRNA level decreased by 0.50, 0.92, 0.75 and 0.84 times that of the control. In contrast, Cygb protein levels (ng/mL) increased (16.95; 20.33; 21.20; 14.01 and 6.29 control). Strong negative correlation between mRNA and Cygb protein (R = -0.611). Strong positive correlation between HIF-1α and Cygb protein (R = 0.670).

Conclusion:

This study showed that Cygb mRNA expression decreased, further increasing Cygb protein; HIF-1α protein levels increased, further increasing Cygb protein. In COVID-19 patients (Alpha, Beta, Delta and Omicron variants), there is an increase in Cygb protein levels through stimulation of HIF-1α, which is stable under hypoxic conditions. The regulation of Cygb in this study has the potential to become the basis for handling cases of viral infections or other cases of hypoxia.

Keywords: Cytoglobin, Corona virus disease 2019, Hypoxia, Transcription factor, Oxygen, Cygb expression in hypoxic COVID-19.