Detection of Tear Biomarkers for Future Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

Yong Li*, a, b
a Cancer Care Centre, St George Hospital, Gray St, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia
b St George Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2086, Australia

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© 2010 Yong Li

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Cancer Care Centre, St George Hospital, Gray St, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia; Tel: +61-2-9113- 2514; Fax: +61-2-9113-2514; E-mail:


Prostate cancer (CaP) continues to be the second leading cause of cancer-specific death in men in Western countries. The marker currently used for CaP detection is an increase in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). However, the PSA test may give false positive or negative information and does not allow the differentiation of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), non-aggressive CaP and aggressive CaP. Tears are a unique source of body fluid and contain proteins, peptides, mucins and lipids, which is useful for studying clinical proteomics. Advances in the field of proteomics have greatly enhanced the study of tears, with a greater number of proteins now being identified in tears. Identification of novel biomarkers in tear is a new area of development. Modern advances in the field of proteomic techniques hold the promise of providing the clinical oncologists with new tools to find novel CaP biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis.

Keywords: Prostate cancer, tear, biomarker, proteomics, diagnosis.