Cord Blood Cholinesterase and Fluoride in Congenital Anomalies

Simmi Kharb*, A Ghosh, S Nanda
Department of Biochemistry and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pt. B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India



There is an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities in north-west India. N-W India is predominantly an agricultural community and some environmental factors, fluoride and pesticides exposure are hypothesized to be one of the causative agents. Levels of serum cholinesterase in newborns with congenital anomalies have not been explored yet.


The present study was planned to analyse the levels of cord blood cholinesterase in newborns with congenital anomalies.


Thirty healthy newborns and thirty newborns with visible congenital anomalies were selected as control and cases, respectively. Detailed history, nutritional status of parents, history of pesticides or heavy metal exposure of parents and history of use of any medication were taken and detailed physical examination of babies was carried. Five ml cord blood was collected from placental end of the umbilical cord after delivery of baby and serum was separated and serum fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and serum cholinesterase was estimated enzymatically.


In the present study, serum cholinesterase levels were significantly decreased in babies with congenital anomalies as compared to healthy counterparts (p=0.000). Serum fluoride levels were significantly raised in newborns with congenital anomalies as compared with newborns without congenital anomalies (p<0.001).


Findings of the present study suggest that low cord blood cholinesterase levels along with high fluoride levels can be caused by various agricultural and industrial pollutant in this region and the interplay between cholinesterase and fluoride might result in congenital anomalies in this region.

Keywords: Cholinesterase, Congenital anomalies, Cord blood, Newborns, Pesticides.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 08
Publisher Item Identifier: EA-TOBIOMJ-2018-6

Article History:

Received Date: 27/1/2018
Revision Received Date: 15/5/2018
Acceptance Date: 22/10/2018
Electronic publication date: 29/10/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Kharb et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Correspondence: Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biochemistry and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pt. B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India; Tel: +66813172282; E-mail: